Thursday, 26 May 2016

Simple Living - High Thinking

What is the source of all happiness? Is it money? Or is it power, name, fame and recognition? Nothing appears to be true as most of the wealthiest, famed and powerful people are no happier than the ordinary people. If it is true, why do we all strive to achieve these material goals to achieve happiness?
The answer seems simple. We always crave for what we do not possess in the anticipation that once we get what we want, we should feel happy. This concept seems to have originated from our basic desire to satisfy our hunger. When you are hungry, you desperately seek food. You feel satisfied once your stomach is full, yet the craving returns after a few hours once the food is digested.
No animal except man has understood this simple truth. Hence man did not feel satisfied after satisfying his hunger as he learned that the craving will come back. Hence he anticipated the future by using his thought, and started cultivating and storing food and grains so that he would be free from the necessity of satisfying his basic need. Once he had taken care of his basic needs, he started thinking high about larger things of life like the understanding of the material world and even thoughts of God or the Creator of the universe.
Jesus said that a man will not live for bread alone. It is because man is the most superior creation of the world and he cannot be satisfied by merely living to eat and reproduce. He eats only to live. The goal of his life is to think high, as high as the thoughts of God.
Then, why most human beings are not happy? The answer seems to be that they fail to follow their nature and seek happiness in satisfaction of their basic instincts just like any other animal. In order to feel happy he has to think high, not only for the human being but also for all the creations of the universe. It is only by developing proper understanding of the world that we can feel happy as happiness can come only if we are able to know the minds of the people and understand the reason for their action. Improper understanding of the world causes frustration since we always find that actions of other people to be wrong and unreasonable.
Right knowledge is necessary to understand the world. Yet knowledge is often available in the form of written words which are created in a particular context. Since the world changes with every passing moment and we never deal with the same people and the same situations again, we can never use old knowledge to solve new problems. We have no option but to create new knowledge for ourselves taking help from the old knowledge. The new knowledge must be useful for understanding the present world and solve the present problems. This capability of human beings to create new and useful knowledge is often called "Creativity".
Creative people not only solve their own problems but they also help other people and societies in solving their problems. The world always seeks people who can create new knowledge for the present realities of the world based on the knowledge of the past. These people are able to create knowledge as they can understand the secret of knowledge and modify it to suit changes in time and values.
Creative people are capable of thinking beyond the obvious, beyond the written words of literature or beyond the senses? What are the necessary conditions for creating such thoughts which are relevant yet eternal? How do people create such thoughts? What motivates them to create new thoughts? How can one become such a high thinking person?
Maslow's Law of Hierarchy
This theory was best expressed by Maslow in his 1943 paper "A Theory of Human Motivation". The basic concept is that the higher needs in this hierarchy only come into focus once all the needs that are lower down in the pyramid are mainly or entirely satisfied.

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Islam - Essay - Fundamentals and History

There are few people on earth today who have not heard something about Islam. Islam is one of the most prominent religions in the world today with at least 750 million people practicing. Islam is a voluntary relationship between an individual and his creator. Islam emerged in Arabia during the early 7th century. Islam means "submission" in Arabic, which is the basis for the religion---submitting to the Will of God. Islamic religion is formed on the foundations of Islamic life, variety and unity is Islam, and Islam and its nonbelievers. The Islamic people had a new faith in their religion and kept their hopes high to conquer and spread the religion. They changed the society that was used across the lands and brought a new religion that would keep the people high in assurance that they'll always have a good spirit.
The foundations of Islamic life are based on a sacred text called the Qu'ran. The Qu'ran is a record of the exact words revealed by God through the Angel Gabriel to the Prophet Muhammad. The Qu'ran is the prime source of every Muslims' faith and practice. It deals with all the subjects which concern us as human beings: wisdom, doctrine, worship, and law, but its basic theme is the relationship between God and his creatures. At the same time it provides guidelines for a just society, proper human conduct and an equitable economic system. From the time the Qu'ran was revealed, until this day there has always been a large number of Muslims who have memorized all of the Qu'ran, letter by letter. Not one letter of the Qu'ran has been changed over the centuries.
Another source for the basis of Islamic life is al-Hadith, or sunnah. This is a vast body of transmitted stories and sayings attributed to the Prophet and his comparisons. Unlike the Qu'ran, these stories are not assembled in a single, absolutely accepted text. There are actually many collections of Hadith. Over time, during the first few centuries of Islam, it became obvious that many so-called hadith were in fact spurious sayings that had been fabricated for various motives, at best to encourage believers to act righteously and at worse to corrupt believers' understanding of Islam and to lead them astray. Since Islamic legal scholars were utilizing hadith as an adjunct to the Qu'ran in their development of the Islamic legal system, it became critically important to have reliable collections of hadith. While the early collections of hadith often contained hadith that were of questionable origin, gradually collections of authenticated hadith called sahih were compiled. Such collections were made possible by the development of the science of hadith criticism, a science at the basis of which was a critical analysis of the chain of (oral) transmission (isnad) of the hadith going all the way back to Muhammad. The two most highly respected collections of hadith are the authenticated collections the Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim. In addition to these, four other collections came to be well respected, although not to the degree of Bukhari and Muslim's sahih collections. These four other collections are the Sunan of Tirmidhi, Nasa'i, Ibn Majah, and Abu Da'ud. Together these four and the two sahih collections are called the "six books" (al-kutub al-sitta). Two other important collections, in particular, are the Muwatta of Ibn Malik, the founder of the Maliki School of law, and the Musnad of Ahmad ibn Hanbal, the founder of the Hanbali School of law.

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How to Pick Creative Topics for an Essay 2: Using Occam's Razor Sparingly

1. You have been reading up on a topic, and you have to write an essay about it for homework.
2. You are reading about an unusual event and you want to know why it happened.
3. You are curious about why some people behave the way they do.
Deciding what to write about, what is important, and reaching meaningful conclusions about the causes of certain events, or coming to understand the human condition and what motivates people, are all difficult things to do.
There are so many theories, ideas, and slants. There seems to be so much information on any given topic that reaching the right conclusions rather than jumping to them is difficult, if not impossible. At any rate that's how it must look at times.
There are ways to reach sensible conclusions, and realizing that there may not be any right answers to complex questions is one such way. There are sensible, plausible answers, but most of the time, there is rarely just the one that is absolutely correct.
The physical sciences seem to represent the closest we get to 'right' answers, but any scientists will tell you that what is considered correct only applies at a certain level of analysis.
Water boils at 100 degrees Centigrade, and every schoolboy knows that. A closer look at water boiling, however, reveals that only pure water boils at that temperature, and then only at sea level. Add some impurities, and try the experiment at an altitude above mean sea level and you will find that in fact, water doesn't behave in that way.
In the mosaic of information in other subjects, much of the information actually conflicts, and we know that statistics can be manipulated to prove anything, don't we?
A friend of mine was recently informed by a doctor that his apparent deafness was due to a spinal degeneration that was limiting the amount of blood getting to the ear. Another doctor examined him and told him he had a an ear infection from swimming in water that may not have been chlorinated enough to prevent contamination.
My friend accepted the latter diagnosis. The question is: Was he right to do that? Was he right to accept the diagnosis that he most wanted to believe?
He accepted the simplest explanation. He used the principle known as 'Occam's razor' to decide what to believe. He had a vested interest in so doing, and indeed, who wouldn't want to believe the second explanation rather than the first?
Occam's razor states that: 'One should not increase, beyond what is necessary, the number of entities required to explain anything.'
It is similar to the principle of parsimony or the principle of simplicity, which is a criterion for deciding among scientific theories or explanations.
'One should always choose the simplest explanation of a phenomenon, the one that requires the fewest leaps of logic.'
Or in other words:
'A problem should be stated in its basic and simplest terms. In science, the simplest theory that fits the facts of a problem is the one that should be selected.'
In plain language, the simplest explanation is most probably the correct one, given that all the facts have been dealt with, the logical principle put forward by William of Occam, a medieval English philosopher.
Here is a real life example of Occam's Razor in practice. Crop circles began to be reported in the 1970s. Two interpretations were made of the circles of matted grass. The first one was that UFOs had made the imprints. The second was that someone (human) had used some sort of instruments to push down the grass.
Occam's Razor would say that given the lack of evidence for UFOs and the complexity involved in UFOs arriving from distant galaxies, the second interpretation is the simplest and therefore the one most likely to be correct.
Of course, both explanations could have been wrong, but again, the second was by far the simplest, and so, applying the principle of Occam's razor, would be the one most likely to be correct.
More evidence would be needed before the first one could be accepted. In fact, two people later admitted that they had made the circles, corroborating the second explanation.
For a given set of observations or data, there is always an infinite number of possible models explaining those same data. This is because a model normally represents an infinite number of possible cases.
Evidence is critical in making judgments regarding explanations for otherwise inexplicable events is concerned.
We talk about reaching conclusions, and we talk about jumping to conclusions, and while it is true to say that the latter is usually applied to more day to day matters, it is also true to say that reaching conclusions based upon examination of sound evidence is always
preferable to jumping to conclusions, or reaching a conclusion before any attempt at examining all the evidence has been undertaken.
Acceptance of a proposition based upon incomplete evidence is known as prejudice. To be honest though, prejudicial behavior is usually displayed in connection with issues that concern people rather than, for example, with scientific phenomena.
Nevertheless, if we were to invariably accept the simplest explanation as being the nearest one to the truth, or to reality, then we would be guilty of habitually ignoring potentially important data just because it complicated the issue or because it was not presented initially.
A complete, in depth understanding of complex issues or equations demands that we examine all the relevant data before we pass judgment or define something, or decide upon something.

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MLA Format Works Cited Generator

Students can use an MLA format works cited generator to help format their research paper or essay. Writing an essay is a tough task for most university students, especially for those who are new to the environment. The fact is that every tiny detail will make a difference to the research paper. Professional professors pay complete attention to detail. If the students do not follow MLA rules while writing essays, then their final grades go down, and the essay face rejection.
As such, using a MLA format works cited generator is almost a must for such aspiring students. The MLA format generator will automatically generate the citations for the paper without any hassles. Instead of having to write everything carefully, all that students have to do is, go to a generator and insert personal sources. The citations will automatically be generated without any mistake by the generator.
These tools help to save time as well as to ensure the final work is free of errors. There are many websites that have MLA format works cited generator. The generator automatically generates citation, when the details including the book's ISBN, the bibliography style, the content type, the author's name, creator type and publisher details are typed inside it. It does not get any easier than this. After the data is inserted, students can export the citation and insert it on personal essay.
There are other MLA format works cited generator websites, which do the same, with the difference of having one or two extra tools. Tools like this are a student's best friend especially when a student is late to deliver a work and finds citation writing as the hardest part. The huge demand of these cited tools makes people believe that the dependability on such tools has increased enormously.
Writing by using the MLA format works cited generator is crucial. Imagine if students had total freedom to do whatever one pleased on paper, the student would not create a masterpiece but instead a mediocre paper. Standards for parts of a paper like citations also ensure universal acceptance of t

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Successful Steps to Good Essay Writing

Often students try to avoid essay writing in their normal study course. However, they forget that essay writing is the most important part of the curriculum. Today due to competition there is a high expectation from students. With the burden of academic subjects, students often become careless about essay writing. They do not get enough time to think about developing a good essay writing skill.
However, with the advent of technology, things have become quite easy for students. The online essay writing services educate the students how to write a good essay.
Consider these simple steps and become a professional essay writer:
1. Consider essay as a process and not a task bounded with deadlines. You have to consider reading, thinking, planning and organizing your thoughts. You have to understand the topic and study about the topic. Primary research is very important before drafting your thoughts. Once you are finished with research process, start thinking creatively about the topic and make notes or pointers, which will help you during documentation process.
2. The blank screen or paper in front of you while drafting essay is the most difficult part of the process. You must sketch out a plan before writing. Once you have written down your points, start assembling these points. Give each point a logical heading; this will help you to elaborate your points. These will later develop into paragraphs of your essay.
The most important subheads will include:
An introduction, which will explain the sources of your study
Main body, which is an analysis of your topic. It will include the opinions, comments and findings. You can quote about some scientific research or media studies.
Conclusion is where you force the reader to accept your points. You can conclude with quotes or even end with a question that will boggle reader's mind.
All these points will give you an outline to your essay writing. Do not stick to one point. This makes the reader disinterested in your writing.
3. Your correct English is the most compelling part of essay writing. Use simple but correct English. Your essay may not be flowery in writing but must have substance in the subject. If it is argumentative, you must collect enough data to make it genuine. To improve on these points you must read many editorial sections from magazines or newspapers.
4. Try to make a rough draft of your essay before submission. You must read it aloud and look for any changes if required. If your essay is long or it is a dissertation, you must prepare small drafts of paragraphs and then try to focus on each paragraph. Try to make pointers on these paragraphs, which will help you during the assembly of all paragraphs. Do not lose track of your point or argument. In case if you are lost, refer to points.
5. Essays are small samples of knowledge. You cannot elaborate on an endless discussion. You must give it a strong voice and back up with supportive arguments and discussions. The essay must invoke reader's thought process. Keep everything in moderation. Do not lose your focus.

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Stop Filling in the Blanks and Make a Funny Online Language Test

Many language learners complain that most online tests they've come across are like the 'fill in the blanks' variety. I know that filling in the blanks all the time is quite boring. And language learning should contain listening, speaking, reading and writing, so should the language tests. So here comes the question, how could we make a funny online language test and has variety itself?
I used to learn how to make a flash test with Adobe Flash. Have to admit, I was once deeply impressed by the stunning flash tests others make with Adobe tools. However it turns out that I found that maybe I can never well control the Adobe software. Then I turn to some professional test maker.
For making funny language tests, you could use authoring software such as Articulate QuizMaker, QuizWriter, etc as well as online tools like ProProfs. Considering accessibility, functions and price, I will set Wondershare QuizCreator as an example and show you some good stuff of this tool to make a very funny online language test.
1 Use the audio setting to edit a listening item.
Tips: the editing panels of all question types would have an option of audio setting. You could have different kinds of listening tests, from dictation to listen comprehension.
2 Make cloze test with multiple choices. Cloze test is a frequently used form in traditional language test. Using QuizCreator, we could import it into online language tests. And the multiple choices could have single answer as well as multiple answers.
3 Test the linguistic logic with sequence. Now you could know the test takers' controlling over Conjunctions, Prepositions, etc.
4 Even an essay writing question could be created. Online language test has a writing item! Now the test takers would only complain it's too complicated instead of boring.
5 Set time limit for the whole language test. Time limit is quite necessary when it comes to reading items in language tests.
Tips: You can also set Randomization, Passing Rate or Background Music for your online language test. All the functions could be found under "Quiz Properties" - "settings".
6 You could write feedback for each question and the result of the whole test which give more opportunities for you to communicate with the test taker.

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How to Do Good Deeds to Get Online Exposure For Your Book

Effective branding of yourself or your book online takes repeated exposure to your target audiences. And continually tweeting "Buy my book" on Twitter or writing this same thing for your Facebook updates is not an effective way to build a relationship with people who might then buy your book. If anything, constantly "pushing" your book can turn people off.
How do you get repeated online positive exposure without blatant advertising? You use your non-fiction or fiction book in the service of a good cause or to help someone else.
Here are examples of how this works:
Case A: A new website for women has recently launched, and the power behind the website wants members to write 500-word personal essays and submit these essays to the site. You offer you book as a prize for a winner to be selected by from the women who submit an essay. The website creator is thrilled to have a prize that fits the interests of her members and you're thrilled that your book is going to be promoted as the prize.
Case B: There's an online campaign to raise funds for a good cause, such as breast cancer. But the campaign organizer is concerned, as the fundraising deadline nears, that not enough money has been raised. You offer a copy of your book to each of the top five donors (again picked by The fundraiser organizer announces this prize to spur higher donations and you're again thrilled that your book is promoted as the prize.
Case C: You're on a virtual book tour and a blogger who will review your book tells you that offering a free copy of the book encourages comments (incoming links for her blog) because to be eligible to win a person must enter a comment. You're thrilled that the contest will go on for two weeks after your book is reviewed, keeping your book's name in front of the blogger's audience for two whole weeks.
Now obviously you have to be willing to give out free copies of your book whenever such a cross-promotional opportunity presents itself to you. But these free giveaways can get more positive exposure than if you were to give a free copy to a reviewer who never gets around to reading your book. Or give a copy to a reviewer who does "read" your book and then writes a "review" that could have been written by reading the back cover.
In addition, one of the unexpected things that can happen when a blogger gives away your book is that the person who wins often may be someone with his/her own blog. Then that person reviews your book, and you offer a giveaway book for that person's blog contest. And that leads to .....

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Jon Jost, Independent Film-maker - StagefrightJon Jost, Independent Film-maker - Stagefright

Jon Jost, independent film-maker. The early films
9. Stagefright
'Stagefright' (1981) is very different from the other early Jost films. The reason for the difference is two-fold: firstly it was originally made (in shorter form) for German TV, and Jost has adapted his methods to suit the medium, and secondly the subject under examination, the theatre, is examined in close-up, rather than, as in the pervious two films, through its effect on society at large.
The film looks different because it is all shot in a studio with actors performing against a black background. The emphasis, therefore, in on expression through the human figure, which both suits the TV medium and reproduces the methods of the theatre. In fact, since we are made constantly aware that we are watching actors performing, and since the camera does not move, watching the film is almost as much like being at the theatre as like being at the cinema.
The film has no plot, and like 'l, 2, 3, Four' and other early shorts, the sub-text is in essay form. The argument has four stages: an introduction, an exposition, a climax, and a conclusion. The introduction is a short history of human communication, and, like everything else in Jost's films, it can be read on more than one level. Firstly we are made aware that the subject being illustrated is communication as part of the evolution of mankind. Secondly we are aware that the story is being illustrated by actors, and that developments in communication have also taken place in the theatre. And thirdly we are aware that what we are watching is a film, another area in which developments in communication have taken place.
The film opens with a dance representing birth. It can be seen as the birth of mankind, and, in the way the dancer communicates through the use of her body, as the birth of human communication, and of theatre. The following sequences illustrate, visually and aurally, the refinement of this process towards communication through language. First we see the human face, which communicates states of mind through its expressions, then we close in on the mouth, and the extraordinary range of sounds it is capable of making. Then comes the addition of vocal sounds, and finally, as the image cuts back to reveal the full-length naked figure, we hear the first word of the film: 'Human'.
The next sequence follows the development of language, first with a figure clad in a toga reading Latin from a book, illustrating the birth of Western civilisation, the written word, and costume, and then, as letters proliferate wildly on the screen, the arrival of printing. The latter scene is the first with no human figure in it, showing that language has now taken on a life of its own; and the power of this new medium of communication is shown in the next scene: we see a close-up of a text, and, as it is read aloud, drops of blood-red ink fall on the pages, eventually obscuring the words.

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